Author: Makasa Zulkirg
Country: Norway
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Education
Published (Last): 15 March 2015
Pages: 204
PDF File Size: 3.52 Mb
ePub File Size: 8.92 Mb
ISBN: 138-6-84734-616-6
Downloads: 13258
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Brabei

New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: This page was millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download edited millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download 22 Januaryat Economic analysis is often used to quantify tradeoffs.

Despite improvements in monitoring technology, ecosyshem some cases the currently collected data are of lower quality than historical data. Reply to Romero and Agrawal: Ostrom E The challenge of common-pool resources.

In other cases, governance and feedback control mechanisms, prices, property rights, sanctioning systems, and the like, seem to operate at scales that conform to those of ecosystem services.

Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Conserving tropical biodiversity via market forces and spatial targeting. Dasgupta P Discounting climate change.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment | Ecosystem Services | Ecosystem

Key results of this research must be applied promptly, and monitoring programs must be put in place to evaluate outcomes. Although all of these millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download pose challenge for data gathering, analysis, and modeling, biodiversity is particular demanding because it involves the variety of kinds, spatial patterns, millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download interactions of biotic systems at milldnium levels of organization genes, species, ecosystems, and landscapes or seascapes.

Therefore, the MA used a millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download array of models to describe systems, synthesize information, interpolate within the historical record, and project future outcomes 12 Steffen Wet al. The MA milleniumm extensive use of the world’s storehouse of long-term data on social—ecological variables. For example, the Caribbean Sea Ecosystem Assessment CARSEA showed how coral reef biodiversity of species and spatial heterogeneity is embedded in complex linkages of indirect drivers urbanization, investment in unsustainable tourism, international shipping practices, fragmentation of authority among 22 island statesdirect drivers land and sea use, coastal pollution, fish harvest, climate change, river discharge, alien species introductionsecosystem services principally ecotourism and fish harvestand amenity values measured as jobs, GDP, and investment Networked research also demands consistency in data collection across places and through time, as well as shared, transparent, interoperable capacity for information management, analysis, modeling, and synthesis.

Biodiversity in the context of ecosystem services: Moreover, models for sectors must be coupled with projections from other models of climate, demography, macroeconomic development, and other drivers to assess or project ecosystem services.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

The unfortunate reality is that in an increasingly resource-constrained world, increases in one ecosystem service or human activity typically result in the reduction in other services or activities The MA combined the applied and basic millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download of sustainability science.

It challenged the research community to synthesize what was known about sustainability science in policy-relevant ways. Indications are that the future trajectory will continue to be unfavorable unless society takes action to combat the adverse trends Spatial milldnium temporal signatures of fragility and threshold proximity in modelled semi-arid millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download. Poverty is frequently quantified by using the poverty datum line, the minimum income required to purchase a person’s basic nutritional needs Revisiting Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems.

doanload This income threshold is then transformed to reflect the purchasing power in the respective countries. Abstract The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment MA introduced a new framework for analyzing social—ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy downlload scientific communities.

Existing knowledge, cutting-edge themes, and research strategies. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Annu Rev Environ Resources millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download This model development should be done in a research setting, not under the stringent time constraints of an assessment.

millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download

Clear guidelines are needed for estimating and communicating uncertainties. Outcomes could be explained by project design or implementation, unavoidable tradeoffs among ecosystem services, or uncontrolled factors such millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download armed conflict or weak rule-of-law.

Ecosystems and human well-being: It would evaluate not only the direct effects of biodiversity, but the role of biodiversity in modifying the effects of drivers on ecosystem services. Such research would directly address needs for information about how drivers and milldnium interventions change ecosystem services.

In many cases, there is a disconnection between the location where the benefits are derived and the location where the ecosstem are borne; for instance, better catchment management is a cost to highland people, but a benefit to downstream lowlanders.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) | SEDAC

Such dwonload must millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download guided by a conceptual framework that can be applied at multiple scales and accounts for interactions across scales 615 Global biophysical and social drivers affect both ecological and social aspects of regional systems Left and Right sides, respectively, of Fig. Slow recovery and irreversibility translate into long-term losses of ecosystem services and persistent problems for managers aiming to sustain human well-being.

Global degradation of ecosystem services has many causes, including dysfunction of institutions and policy, gaps in scientific knowledge, unpredictable events, and other factors. Nelson Eet al.

Useful models may be qualitative relationships, toy heuristics, or complex simulation tools. Rodriguez JPet al. Chapin FSet al. Biodiversity effects must be understood in social—ecological context. Rosenzweig M Win–Win Ecology: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 11 — 15 used a new conceptual framework for documenting, analyzing, and understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems and human well-being.

However, a large number of ecosystem service tradeoffs fail this test. For example, incentives to induce joint management of landscape carbon sequestration and biodiversity have been evaluated Agriculture fishing irrigation meat production palm oil Energy industry biofuels biodiesel coal electricity generation nuclear power oil shale petroleum reservoirs wind power Genetic pollution Industrialization Land use Manufacturing cleaning millenkum concrete plastics millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download paint paper pesticides pharmaceuticals and personal care Mining Overdrafting Overexploitation Overpopulation Particulates Pollution Quarrying Reservoirs Tourism Transport millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download roads shipping Urbanization urban sprawl war.

Environmental impact assessment in the environment. Although many important questions of downlowd interdisciplinary science must be addressed, here we are most concerned with the problem-solving aspects of social—ecological research 1.

The relevant information needed to analyze social—ecological systems is both vast and fragmented, encompassing most of the natural and social sciences as well as the humanities millenium ecosystem assessment pdf download.